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Section A: Low & Medium Risk Merchant account Types Section B: Higk Risk Merchant Account Type
 
Section B: Higk Risk Merchant Account Type

  • Replica Consumer Goods
      Counterfeit consumer goods, commonly called knock offs are counterfeit or imitation products offered for sale. The spread of counterfeit goods has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly. According to the study of Counterfeiting Intelligence Bureau (CIB) of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) counterfeit goods make up 5 to 7% of world trade, however, these figures cannot be substantiated. A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) indicates that up to 200 billion U.S. dollars of international trade could have been in counterfeit and pirated goods in 2005.

      According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), counterfeit products encompass all products made to closely imitate the appearance of the product of another as to mislead consumers. Those can include the unauthorised production and distribution of products that are protected by intellectual property rights, such as copyright, trademarks and trade names. In many cases, different types of those infringements can often overlap to various goods. Music piracy mostly infringes copyright as well as trademarks; fake toys infringe design protection. The term "counterfeiting" therefore addresses piracy and related issues, such as copying of packaging, labelling, or any other significant features of the goods. Among the leading industries that have been seriously affected by counterfeiting are software, music recordings, motion pictures, luxury goods and fashion clothes, sportswear, perfumes, toys, aircraft components, spare parts and car accessories, and pharmaceuticals.

      Counterfeit clothes, shoes and handbags from designer brands are made in varying quality which sometimes the intent is only to fool the gullible buyer who only looks at the label and doesn't know what the real thing looks like, while others put some serious effort into mimicking fashion details. Others realize that most consumers do not care if the goods they buy are counterfeit and just wish to purchase inexpensive products. The popularity of designer jeans in 1978, spurred a flood of knockoffs. Factories that manufacture counterfeit designer brand garments and watches are usually located in developing countries. Many international tourists visiting Beijing will find a wide selection of counterfeit designer brand garments at the infamous Silk Street. Counterfeiting in China is so deep rooted that when shops selling relevant merchandise in Silk Street were shuttered by authorities, the owners protested publicly against this action.

      Expensive watches are vulnerable to counterfeiting as it is a common cliche that any visitor to New York City will be approached on a street corner by a vendor with a dozen such counterfeit watches inside his coat, offered at bargain prices. Copyright infringement is the unauthorized or prohibited use of works under copyright, infringing the copyright holder's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works. Compact Discs, videotapes and DVDs, computer software and other media which are easily copied can be counterfeited, and sold through vendors at street markets, night markets, mail order, and numerous Internet sources, including open auction sites like eBay. In some cases where the counterfeit media has packaging good enough to be mistaken for the genuine product, it is sometimes sold as such. Music enthusiasts may use the term "Bootleg Recording" to differentiate otherwise unavailable recordings from counterfeited copies of commercially released material.
  • Online Pharmacy
      Online pharmacies, or Internet pharmacies, are pharmacies that operate over the Internet. Many such pharmacies are in some ways, similar to community pharmacies; the primary difference is the method by which the medications are requested and received. Some customers consider this to be more convenient than traveling to a community drugstore, in the same way as ordering goods online rather than going to a shop.

      A virtual pharmacy is a pharmacy that has a presence in the virtual world or Internet (World Wide Web). They vary from simply an expansion of land based pharmacies like CVS or Walgreens in the United States who needed to add the capability to serve patients from the comfort of their home, to completely virtual examples that refer patient’s prescriptions to various land based pharmacies throughout the globe, this process is similar to drop shipping. The consumer basically finds their favorite virtual pharmacy through search engines like Google or Yahoo explains their symptoms, look at the recommended drugs and fills out an online questionnaire that is forwarded to doctor for approval. If the doctor approves the patient’s request he writes a prescription and forwards it to nearby pharmacy who then ships it the patient, sometimes in as little as 18 hours. Virtual pharmacies are booming businesses online today.

      Often virtual pharmacies will employ several certified pharmacists and physicians who review your request, then fills your prescription, and dispense the drugs, usually within a day or so. These services are provided from a remote site, while using technology, in this the order is accessed by the web browser and filled by the pharmacist. After they have filled the prescription, the medications are shipped overnight via courier services these also help in providing online care without a visit to the doctor.

      While many internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs only with a prescription, some do not require a pre-written prescription. In some countries, this is because prescriptions are not required. Some customers order drugs from such pharmacies to avoid the inconvenience of visiting a doctor or to obtain medications their doctors were unwilling to prescribe. People living in the United States and other countries where prescription medications are very expensive may turn to online pharmacies to save money. Many of these websites employ their own in house physicians to review the medication request and write a prescription accordingly. Some websites offer medications without a prescription or a doctor review. This practice has been criticized as potentially dangerous, especially by those who feel that only doctors can reliably assess contraindications, risk/benefit ratios, and the suitability of a medication for a specific individual. Pharmacies offering medication without requiring a prescription and doctor review or supervision are sometimes fraudulent and may supply counterfeit and ineffective and possibly dangerous medicines.

      In the United States, there has been a push to legalize importation of medications from Canada, Mexico and several European countries to reduce consumer costs. Although importation of prescription medication usually violates Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations and federal laws, enforcement is generally targeted at international drug suppliers, rather than consumers. Often Americans purchase lower cost foreign drugs by driving to Canadian or Mexican pharmacies, buying their medications when traveling abroad on vacation or buying through Internet foreign pharmacies. A generic drug is a copy of a brand name drug whose patent has expired. The original manufacturer of a drug receives a patent on the drug and is the only manufacturer who can produce and sell the drug during this patent period. Once the patent expires, other manufacturers may produce and sell the drug. These manufacturers usually sell the drug under its common or generic name.

      Over the counter (OTC) or Non Controlled drugs are medicines that may be sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription. In many countries, over the counter drugs are selected by a regulatory agency to ensure that they are ingredients that are safe and effective when used without a physician's care. Over the counter drugs are usually regulated by active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), not final products. By regulating APIs instead of specific drug formulations, governments allow manufacturers freedom to formulate ingredients, or combinations of ingredients, into proprietary mixtures.

      Prescription or controlled drugs is one whose use and distribution is tightly controlled because of its abuse potential or risk. Controlled drugs are rated in the order of their abuse risk and placed in Schedules by the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The term over the counter may be somewhat counter intuitive, since, in many countries, these drugs are often located on the shelves of stores like any other packaged product. In contrast, prescription drugs are almost always passed over a counter from the pharmacist to the customer. Some drugs may be legally classified as over the counter, but may only be dispensed by a pharmacy employee after an assessment of the patient's needs the provision of patient education. In many countries, a number of over the counter drugs are available in establishments without a pharmacy, such as general stores, supermarkets, gas stations, etc. Regulations detailing the establishments where drugs may be sold, who is authorized to dispense them, and whether a prescription is required vary considerably from country to country.

      A prescription medication is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. The term is used to distinguish it from over the counter drugs which can be obtained without a prescription. Physicians may legally prescribe drugs for uses other than those specified in the FDA approval and this is known as off label use. Drug companies may not promote or market drugs for off-label uses.Different jurisdictions have different definitions of what constitutes a prescription drug. "Rx" is often used as a short form for prescription drug in North America. In United Kingdom is categorised to prescription only medicines (POM), Pharmacy medicines and General Sales List (GSL). As for European Union, prescription drugs includes a Monograph or Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) that gives detailed information about the drug.
  • Cigar/Cigaratte
      A cigarette is a small roll of finely cut tobacco leaves wrapped in a cylinder of thin paper for smoking. The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smoulder its smoke is inhaled from the other end, which is held in or to the mouth and in some cases a cigarette holder may be used as well. Most modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered and include reconstituted tobacco and other additives. The term cigarette as commonly used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but can apply to similar devices containing other herbs, such as cloves or cannabis. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, and paper wrapping, which is normally white, though other colors are occasionally available. Cigars are typically composed entirely of whole leaf tobacco.

      Rates of cigarette smoking vary widely, and have changed considerably over the course of history since cigarettes were first widely used in the mid 19th century. While rates of smoking have over time leveled off or declined in the developed world, they continue to rise in developing nations. Nicotine, the primary psychoactive chemical in tobacco and therefore cigarettes, is believed to be psychologically addictive, although it does not engender a physiological dependency. Cigarettes are the most frequent source of fires in private homes, which has prompted the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire standard compliant by 2011

      A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco that is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazi, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua Philippines and the Eastern United States. Quality cigars are still handmade. An experienced cigar roller can produce hundreds of very good, nearly identical, cigars per day. The rollers keep the tobacco moist especially the wrapper and use specially designed crescent shaped knives, called "chavetas", to form the filler and wrapper leaves quickly and accurately. Once rolled, the cigars are stored in wooden forms as they dry, in which their uncapped ends are cut to a uniform size. From this stage, the cigar is a complete product that can be "laid down" and aged for decades if kept as close to 21°C (70°F), and 70% relative humidity, as the environment will allow. Once cigars have been purchased, proper storage is usually accomplished by keeping the cigars in a specialized wooden box or humidor where conditions can be carefully controlled for long periods of time. Even if a cigar becomes dry, it can be successfully re-humidified so long as it has not been handled carelessly and done so gradually. The loss of original tobacco oils, however, will greatly affect the taste.

      Some cigars, especially premium brands, use different varieties of tobacco for the filler and the wrapper. Long filler cigars are a far higher quality of cigar, using long leaves throughout. These cigars also use a third variety of tobacco leaf, called a "binder," between the filler and the outer wrapper. This permits the makers to use more delicate and attractive leaves as a wrapper. These high quality cigars almost always blend varieties of tobacco. Even Cuban long filler cigars will combine tobaccos from different parts of the island to incorporate several different flavors. In low grade and machine made cigars, chopped tobacco leaves are used for the filler, and long leaves or a type of "paper" made from tobacco pulp is used for the wrapper which binds the cigar together. This alters the burning characteristics of the cigar, causing handmade cigars to be sought-after.

      An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette, is an electrical device that attempts to simulate the act of tobacco smoking by producing an inhaled mist bearing the physical sensation, appearance, and often the flavor and nicotine content of inhaled tobacco smoke. The device uses heat and in some cases ultrasonic to vaporize a propylene glycol or glycerin based liquid solution into an aerosol mist, similar to the way a nebulizer or humidifier vaporizes solutions for inhalation. Nicotine, if present in the liquid solution being used is absorbed through membranes of the mouth and lungs. The primary stated use of the electronic cigarette is as a smoking cessation device, as it attempts to deliver the experience of smoking without, or with greatly reduced, adverse health effects usually associated with tobacco smoke. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised that use of the device still carries health risks, and that it could appeal to non smokers especially children, due to its novelty, flavorings and possibly overstated claims of safety.

      The possible benefits or adverse effects of electronic cigarette use are a subject of disagreement among different health organizations and researchers. Controlled studies of electronic cigarettes are scarce due to their relatively recent invention and subsequent rapid growth in popularity. Laws governing the use and sale of electronic cigarettes, as well as the accompanying liquid solutions, currently vary widely, with pending legislation and ongoing debate in many regions. Most electronic cigarettes are designed to resemble actual tobacco smoking implements, such as cigarettes, cigars or pipes but many take the form of ballpoint pens or screwdrivers since those designs are more practical to house the mechanisms involved. Most are also reusable, with replaceable and refillable parts, but some models are disposable. The electronic cigarette was invented by Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik in 2003 and introduced to the market the following year. The company he worked for, Golden Dragon Holdings, changed its name to Ruyan meaning "to resemble smoking", and started exporting its products in 2005–2006.
  • Alcohol/Wine
      An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes which are beers, wines, and spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age.

      The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter gatherer peoples to nation states. Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social events in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction mainly because of alcohol’s neurological effects. Alcohol is a pychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. High blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcohol can be addictive, and the state of addiction to alcohol is known as alcoholism. Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes.

      The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acides, enzymes and other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine. Wines made from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced for example apple wine or elderberry wine and are generically called fruit wine or country wine. Other wine available are barley wine and rice wine which are made from starch based materials and resembles beer and spirit more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy
  • Gaming Industry (Casino/Poker/Bingo/Lottery)
      Gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money. Typically, the outcome of the wager is evident within a short period. The term gaming in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity has been specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive as “gaming” company offers “gambling” activities to the public and may be regulated by one of many gaming control boards, for example, the Nevada Gaming Control Board. However, this distinction is not universally observed in the English speaking world. For instance, in the United Kingdom, the regulator of gambling activities is called the Gambling Commission Also, the word gaming is frequently used to describe activities that do not involve wagering, especially on the Internet. In modern English a casino is a facility that houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. Casinos are most commonly built near or combined with hotels, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships and other tourist attractions. Some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy, concerts and sporting events. Use in the past, and modern use in other countries, does not necessarily involve gambling. Gambling is also a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. Online gambling is a general term for gambling using the Internet. Online casinos, also known as virtual casinos or Internet casinos, are online versions of traditional casinos. Online casinos enable gamblers to play and wager on casino games through the Internet. Online casinos generally offer odds and payback percentages that are comparable to land based casinos. Some online casinos claim higher payback percentages for slot machine games, and some publish payout percentage audits on their websites. Assuming that the online casino is using an appropriately programmed random number generator, table games like blackjack have an established house edge. The payout percentage for these games are established by the rules of the game.

      Reliability and trust issues are commonplace and often questioned. Many online casinos lease or purchase their software from well known companies like Microgaming, Realtime Gaming, Playtech, International Game Technology and CrytoLogic Inc in an attempt to "piggyback" their reputation on the software manufacturer's credibility. These software companies either use or claim to use random number generators to ensure that the numbers, cards or dice appear randomly. Online casinos can be divided into two groups based on their interface are web based and download only casinos. Some casinos offer both interfaces. Some casinos offer 'Live gaming', either exclusively, or as part of a wider online casino offering. In live online casinos, popular casino games such as roulette and blackjack are dealt by real dealers in casino studios, in an attempt to convey more of the atmosphere of a physical casino. Player actions which includes chat functions such as 'hit' in the game of blackjack may be transmitted to the dealer; in some online casinos more than one player may 'sit' at a particular 'seat' on the table, and in this case there is no interactivity between player and dealer, the question of which player(s) requested the extra card that the dealer dealt and which chose to 'stand' will be handled by the software. It is usual for players to be able to observe a video feed of the action, and equally common for players to opt to turn it off, if they lack the bandwidth as the cards are read by OCR and other technology, the video feed is only ever a visual cue.

      Online poker is the game of poker played over the Internet. It has been partly responsible for a dramatic increase in the number of poker players worldwide. Christiansen Capital Advisors stated online poker revenues grew from $82.7 million in 2001 to $2.4 billion in 2005, while a survey carried out by DrKW and Global Betting and Gaming Consultants asserted online poker revenues in 2004 were at $1.4 billion. Traditional or "Brick and Mortar", B&M, live venues for playing poker, such as casinos and poker rooms, may be intimidating for novice players and are often located in geographically disparate locations. Also, brick and mortar casinos are reluctant to promote poker because it is difficult for them to profit from it. Though the rake, or time charge, of traditional casinos is often high, the opportunity costs of running a poker room are even higher. Brick and mortar casinos often make much more money by removing poker rooms and adding more slot machines.

      Online venues, by contrast, are dramatically cheaper because they have much smaller overhead costs. Online venues may be more vulnerable to certain types of fraud, especially collusion between players. However, they have collusion detection abilities that do not exist in brick and mortar casinos. For example, online poker room security employees can look at the hand history of the cards previously played by any player on the site, making patterns of behavior easier to detect than in a casino where colluding players can simply fold their hands without anyone ever knowing the strength of their holding. Online poker rooms also check players IP address in order to prevent players at the same household or at known open proxy servers from playing on the same tables. Free poker online was played as early as the late 1990s in the form of IRC poker. Planet Poker was the first online cardroom to offer real money games. The first real money poker game was dealt on January 1, 1998. Author Mike Caro became the "face" of Planet Poker in October 1999.

      Bingo is a game of chance played with randomly drawn numbers which players match against numbers that have been pre-printed on 5x5 matrices. The matrices may be printed on paper, card stock or electronically represented and are referred to as cards. Many versions conclude the game when the first person achieves a specified pattern from the drawn numbers. The winner is usually required to call out the word "Bingo !", which alerts the other players and caller of a possible win. All wins are checked for accuracy before the win is officially confirmed at which time the prize is secured and a new game is begun. In this version of bingo, players compete against one another for the prize or jackpot. Alternative methods of play try to increase participation by creating excitement. Since its invention in 1929, modern bingo has evolved into multiple variations, with each jurisdiction's gambling laws regulating how the game is played. There are also nearly unlimited patterns that may be specified for play. Some patterns only require one number to be matched, up to cover all games which award the jackpot for covering an entire card and certain games award prizes to players for matching no numbers or achieving no pattern.

      Online bingo is the US and UK version game of bingo played on the Internet. It is estimated that the global gross gaming yield of bingo excluding the United States was US$ 0.5 billion in 2006, and it is forecasted to grow to $1 billion by 2010. Unlike balls used in regular bingo halls, online bingo sites use a random number generator. Most bingo halls also offer links to online poker and casino offerings as the patrons are often in the target market. One notable feature of online bingo is the chat functionality. Bingo sites strive to foster a sense of community and interaction between players as this helps customer retention. Some operators require players to download free software to play their games. Other operators use JavaScript or Adobe Flash based games that allow you to play immediately online after registering a player account. To win the largest prizes, users must fund an account, but free bingo games are also available offering players a way to win smaller amounts of money with no risk of gambling. Some online bingo sites offer no deposit bingo with sandbox play. This will allow the player to get the hang of the system without a cash investment, but no monetary value can be gained. Most sites accept a standard range of e-wallet funding options. Sites often provide a number of incentives to deposit, including matching bonuses where the site will reward depositing players by matching a percentage of their deposit. Recently, the USA government has passed laws that limit banks ability to process credit cards for US citizens. The laws prevent US based payment providers from taking payments for online gaming.

      A lottery is a form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. Lottery is outlawed by some governments, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. It is common to find some degree of regulation of lottery by governments. At the beginning of the 20th century, most forms of gambling, including lotteries and sweepstakes were illegal in many countries including the U.S.A. and most of Europe. This remained so until after World War II. In the 1960s casinos and lotteries began to appear throughout the world as a means to raise revenue in addition to taxes.Lotteries come in many formats. For example, the prize can be a fixed amount of cash or goods. In this format there is risk to the organizer if insufficient tickets are sold. More commonly the prize fund will be a fixed percentage of the receipts. A popular form of this is the "50–50" draw where the organizers promise that the prize will be 50% of the revenue. Many recent lotteries allow purchasers to select the numbers on the lottery ticket, resulting in the possibility of multiple winners. The purchase of lottery tickets cannot be accounted for by decision models based on expected value maximization. The reason is that lottery tickets cost more than the expected gain, so one maximizing expected value should not buy lottery tickets. Yet, lottery purchases can be explained by decision models based on expected utility maximization, as the curvature of the utility function can be adjusted to capture risk seeking behavior. More general models based on utility functions defined on things other than the lottery outcomes can also account for lottery purchase. In addition to the lottery prizes, the ticket may enable some purchasers to experience a thrill and to indulge in a fantasy of becoming wealthy. If the entertainment value obtained by playing is high enough for a given individual, then the purchase of a lottery ticket could represent a gain in overall utility. In such a case, the disutility of a monetary loss could be outweighed by the combined expected utility of monetary and non monetary gain, thus making the purchase a rational decision for that individual.

      Online lottery is an online version of the traditional lottery. Online lottery enabled players to buy tickets through the internet. Online lottery sites offers tickets for sale, a review of the latest lottery results, stories from recent winners, lottery odds and some of them offers free lottery tickets. Online lottery has become available in the middle of the 90’s. Official lottery companies have come to the understanding that the crowd using the internet is growing, and that people like the idea of online games. It did not take a while and private brands of online lottery started to appear on the net, providing their own brand lottery tickets. Online lottery allows people to buy lottery tickets to draws from out of their countries

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