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Section A: Low & Medium Risk Merchant account Types Section B: Higk Risk Merchant Account Type
 
Section A: Low & Medium Risk Merchant account Types

  • Adult
      The sex industry consists of businesses which either directly or indirectly provide sex related products and services or adult entertainment. The sex industry includes adult sex related products and services such as pornography that is distributed by means of various sectors of the Internet, primarily via websites, peer to peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups. They include ecommerce sex stores, pornographic adult images, dating services, escort services, men’s magazines, and sex movies.

      The sex industry is subject to a variety of legal restrictions and regulations around the world. For example, participation of minors in the industry is almost universally not permitted, as is the trafficking of people for the purpose of prostitution. The regulations which apply to the industry vary considerably from one jurisdiction to another.
  • Adult Toys
      A sex toy is an object or device that is primarily used to facilitate human sexual pleasure. The most popular sex toys are designed to resemble human genitals and may be vibrating or non vibrating. The term can also include BDSM apparatus and sex furnitures such as slings, however it is not applied to items such as birth control, pornography, or condoms.

      Sex toys and lubricants have become increasingly available in major commercial outlets in the United States. Alternative expressions include adult toy and marital aid, although "marital aid" has a broader sense and is applied to drugs and herbs marketed to supposedly enhance or prolong sex.
  • Advertising (Website)
      Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads on search engine results pages, banner ads, rich media ads, social network advertising, intersitial ads, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.

      One major benefit of online advertising is the immediate publishing of information and content that is not limited by geography or time. To that end, the emerging area of interactive advertising presents fresh challenges for advertisers who have hitherto adopted an interruptive strategy.

      Another benefit is the efficiency of advertiser's investment. Online advertising allows for the customization of advertisements, including content and posted websites. For example, Google AdWords, Google Adsense, Bing Adsense and Yahoo! Search Marketing ads to be shown on relevant web pages or alongside search results.
  • Auction/Bidding Website
      The online auction business model is one in which participants bid for products and services over the Internet. The functionality of buying and selling in an auction format is made possible through auction website which regulates the various processes involved.

      Several types of online auctions are possible. In an English auction the initial price starts low and is bid up by successive bidders. In a Dutch auction, multiple identical items are offered in one auction, with all winning bidders paying the same price the highest price at which all items will be sold (treasury bills, for example, are auctioned this way). Currently almost all online auctions use the English auction method.

      The strategic advantages of this business model include no time constraints, no geographical constraints, Intensity of social interactions, large number of bidders, large number of sellers, network economies and captures consumers surplus. Online Auction sites, like garage sales, flea markets, classified advertisements and other independent sales venues, sometimes draw criminals wishing to sell stolen products, but for law enforcement organizations, finding stolen goods offered online is sometimes easier than more traditional detection methods.
  • Alternative Medicine
      In Western culture, alternative medicine is any healing practice "that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine", or "that which has not been shown consistently to be effective." In some instances, it is based on historical or cultural traditions, rather than a scientific basis. Critics assert that the terms “complementary” and “alternative medicine” are deceptive euphemisms meant to give an impression of medical authority. Richard Dawkins has stated that "there is no alternative medicine. There is only medicine that works and medicine that doesn't work."

      The American National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) studies examples including naturopathy, chiropractic medicine, herbalism, traditional chinese medicine, Ayurveda, meditation, yoga, biofeedback, hypnosis, homeopathy, acupuncture, and nutritional based therapies, in addition to a range of other practices.

      It is frequently grouped with complementary medicine or integrative medicine, which generally refers to the same interventions when used in conjunction with mainstream techniques, under the umbrella term complementary and alternative medicine, or CAM. Some researchers in alternative medicine oppose this grouping, preferring to emphasize differences of approach, but nevertheless use the term CAM, which has become standard. "Although heterogeneous, the major CAM systems have many common characteristics, including a focus on individualizing treatments, treating the whole person, promoting self-care and self-healing, and recognizing the spiritual nature of each individual. In addition, many CAM systems have characteristics commonly found in mainstream health care, such as a focus on good nutrition and preventive practices. Unlike mainstream medicine, CAM often lacks or has only limited experimental and clinical study; however, scientific investigation of CAM is beginning to address this knowledge gap. Thus, boundaries between CAM and mainstream medicine, as well as among different CAM systems, are often blurred and are constantly changing."

      Alternative medicine practices are as diverse in their foundations as in their methodologies. Practices may incorporate or base themselves on traditional medicine, folk knowledge, spiritual beliefs, or newly conceived approaches to healing. Jurisdictions where alternative medical practices are sufficiently widespread may license and regulate them. The claims made by alternative medicine practitioners are generally not accepted by the medical community because evidence based assessment of safety and efficacy is either not available or has not been performed for these practices. If scientific investigation establishes the safety and effectiveness of an alternative medical practice, it then becomes mainstream medicine and is no longer "alternative", and may therefore become widely adopted by conventional practitioners
  • Beauty Products

      Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays, gels, deodorants, hand sanitizer, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. A subset of cosmetics is called "make up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user’s appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics. The word cosmetics derives from the Greek word "kosmetike tekhne", meaning the technique of dress and ornament from "kosmetikos" skilled in ordering or arranging" and that from kosmos, meaning amongst others "order" and "ornament".

      The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes, as well, any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product.

      During the 20th century, the popularity of cosmetics has increased rapidly. Cosmetics are used by girls at an increasingly young age, especially in the United States. Due to the fast decreasing age of make up users, many companies, from high street brands like Rimmel to higher end products like Channel, Christian Dior, Estee Lauder, have catered to this expanding market by introducing more flavored lipsticks and glosses, cosmetics packaged in glittery, sparkly packaging and marketing and advertising using young models. The social consequences of being younger and beautification has had much attention in the media over the last few years.
  • Broadband Phone
      Broadband Phone sometimes called Internet phone, use of the Internet instead of regular phone networks to transmit phone calls. VoIP technology (Voice over Internet Protocol) converts your voice into digital packets that are sent over the ‘Net and converted back into analog signals before they reach the receiver on the other end.

      The beauty of these broadband phone services from the user’s point of view is that they work just like a regular phone once they’re set up. The phone rings, and you pick it up. Or call someone, just as you usually would. (Note that I’m talking about hardware broadband phones here rather than software broadband phone services that need to operate through a computer.) And like other phone services, you can get broadband phone services bundled with all kinds of other phone services, such as caller ID, call waiting and voicemail.

      The main selling point of Internet phones and broadband phone services is savings on long distance phone calls because your broadband phone call travels over the Internet instead of over regular phone lines, your call bypasses regular Telco tolls making broadband phone services less expensive than “regular” phone services. And many broadband phone service providers offer free calls between users of the same broadband phone service provider.

      Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP, VoIP) is one of a family of internet technologies, communication protocols, and transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. Other terms frequently encountered and often used synonymously with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone.

      Internet telephony refers to communications services Voice, fax, SMS, and voice messaging applications that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The steps involved in originating a VoIP telephone call are signaling and media channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signal, encoding, packetization, and transmission as Internet Protocol (IP) packets over a packet switched network. On the receiving side, similar steps (usually in the reverse order) such as reception of the IP packets, decoding of the packets and digital to analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream.

      VoIP systems employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio codecs which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream. The codec used is varied between different implementations of VoIP (and often a range of codecs are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high fidelity stereo codecs.

      There are three types of VoIP tools that are commonly used IP phones, software VoIP and Mobile and Integrated VoIP. The IP Phones are the most institutionally established but still the least obvious of the VoIP tools. Of all the software VoIP tools that exist, Skype is probably the most easily identifiable. The use of software VoIP has increased during the global recession as many persons, looking for ways to cut costs have turned to these tools for free or inexpensive calling or video conferencing applications. Software VoIP can be further broken down into three classes or subcategories; Web Calling, Voice and Video Instant Messaging and Web Conferencing. Mobile and Integrated VoIP is just another example of the adaptability of VoIP. VoIP is available on many smartphones and internet devices so even the users of portable devices that are not phones can still make calls or send SMS text messages over 3G, 4G or WIFI.
  • Call Center (Inbound&Outbound)
      A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outgoing calls for telemarketing, clientele, product services, and debt collection are also made. In addition to a call centre, collective handling of letters, faxes, live chat, and e-mails at one location is known as a contact centre.

      The calls managed by a number of call centers can be categorized into Outbound Calls and Inbound Calls. Outbound calls include Advisories, Sales Verification, Customer Services, Surveys and it is usually the Call center agent who calls the client. While Inbound Calls include Inquiries, Technical Support, Inbound Sales and various Customer services and in this situation it is the client who calls the call center agent.

      A call center is often operated through an extensive open workspace for call centre agents, with workstations that include a computer for each agent, a telephone set/headset connected to a telecom switch, and one or more supervisor stations. It can be independently operated or networked with additional centres, often linked to a corporate computer network, including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs. Increasingly, the voice and data pathways into the centre are linked through a set of new technologies called computer telephony integration (CTI).

      Most major businesses use call centres to interact with their customers. Examples include utility companies, mail order catalogue retailers, and customer support for computer hardware and software. Some businesses even service internal functions through call centres. Examples of this include help desks, retail financial support, and sales support.

      A contact centre, also known as customer interaction centre is a central point of any organization from which all customer contacts are managed. Through contact centres, valuable information about company are routed to appropriate people, contacts to be tracked and data to be gathered. It is generally a part of company’s customer relationship management (CRM). Today, customers contact companies by calling, emailing, chatting online, visiting websites, faxing, and even instant messaging.
  • Car Accessory
      This Automotive accessories contains relates to non essential automotive parts which embellish the look and feel of an automobile or add functionality.There are a lot of different accessories that you can buy to dress up your car. There are floor mats, spoilers, fancy wheels, electronic accessories and thousands of other items to help you personalize your vehicle. The two most important things to keep in mind however are safety and legality.
  • Car Rental
      A car rental or car hire agency is a company that rents automobiles for short periods of time (generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks) for a rental fee. It is an elaborate form of a rental shop, often organized with numerous local branches (which allow a user to return a vehicle to a different location), and primarily located near airports or busy city areas and often complemented by a website allowing online reservations.

      ar rental agencies primarily serve people who have a car that is temporarily out of 'reach or out of service, for example travelers who are out of town or tourists and owners of damaged or destroyed vehicles who are awaiting repair or insurance compensation. Because of the variety of sizes of their vehicles, car rental agencies may also serve the self moving industry needs, by renting vans or trucks, and in certain markets other types of vehicles such as motorcycles or scooters may also be offered.

      Alongside the basic rental of a vehicle, car rental agencies typically also offer extra products such as insurance, global positioning satellite (GPS) navigation systems, entertainment systems, and even such things as mobile phones.

      Car rental companies operate by purchasing or leasing a number of fleet vehicles and renting them to their customers for a fee. Rental fleets can be structured in several ways they can be owned outright (these are known as ‘risk vehicles’ because the car rental operator is taking a risk on how much the vehicle will be sold for when it is removed from service), they can be leased, or they can be owned under a guaranteed buy back program arranged directly through a manufacturer or manufacturer’s financial arm (these are known as ‘repurchase vehicles’ because the manufacturer outlines the exact price of original sale and of repurchase at the end of a defined term).
  • Cell Phone
      A mobile phone also called mobile, cellular telephone, cell phone, or hand phone in Southeast Asia countries is an electronic device used to make mobile telephone calls across a wide geographic area. Mobile phones are different from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within a limited range of a fixed land line, for example within a home or an office.

      A mobile phone can make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed line phones across the world. It does this by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile phone operator.

      In addition to functioning as a telephone, a modern mobile phone typically supports additional services such as SMS or Text Messaging, MMS, e-mail and Internet access such as 3G and 4G broadband with short range wireless functions like infrared or bluetooth communications. Mobile phones that offer photography, gaming, advanced computing abilities and downloadable software apps are referred to as Smartphones.

      The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kg. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to be commercially available. In the twenty years from 1990 to 2010, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 4.6 billion, penetrating the developing economies and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid.
  • Collectible Goods / Antique
      An antique (antiquus) is an old collectible item. It is collected or desirable because of its age, beauty, rarity, condition, utility, personal emotional connection, and/or other unique features. It is an object that represents a previous era or time period in human society. It is common practice to define "antique", as applying to objects at least 100 years old. Collectibles are, generally speaking, the possible antiques of the future and generally less than 100 years old. The only real law concerning the definition of the word antique comes from the US customs office that considers antique as anything 100 years old.

      Antiques are usually objects which show some degree of craftsmanship, or a certain attention to design such as a desk or an early automobile. They are most often bought at antique shops, or passed down as an estate. Some valuable antiques can be bought from antique dealers and auction services or purchased online through websites and online auctions. Antique dealers are often members of national trade associations, many of which belong to CINOA, a confederation of art and antique associations across 21 countries, representing 5000 dealers.

      SadDarSad is the first and largest Iranian Auction Site similar to ebay. Saddarsad is operated by the company GLT Consulting. Saddarsad provides a national market place to buy and sell electronics, cars, clothing, apparel, collectibles, sporting goods, digital cameras, and much more.

      "Antiquing" is the act of shopping, identifying, negotiating, or bargaining for antiques. Items can be bought for personal use, gifts, and in the case of brokers and dealers, profit. Antiquing is performed at garage sales, estate sales, resort towns, antiques districts, collectives, and international auction houses.

      Note that the word "antiquing" may also refer to the art of making an object appear antique through distressing or applying an antique looking paint application.
  • Computer Hardware
      A personal computer is made up of multiple physical components of computer hardware, upon which can be installed a system software called Operating System and a multitude of software applications to perform the operator's desired functions.

      Though a PC comes in many different forms and brands, a typical personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop), containing components such as a motherboard.

      The motherboard is the main component inside the case. It is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the rest of the parts of the computer including the Central Processing Unit (CPU), the Random Access Memory (RAM), the disk drives (CD, DVD, Hard Disk Drive or any others) as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots.
  • Dating Websites
      Online dating or Internet dating is a dating system which allows individuals, couples and groups to make contact and communicate with each other over the Internet, usually with the objective of developing a personal romantic or sexual relationship. Online dating services usually provide any un-moderated matchmaking over the Internet, through the use of personal computers or cell phones.

      Online dating services generally require a prospective member to provide personal information, before they can search the service provider's database for other individuals using criteria they set, such as age range, gender and location. Most sites allow members to upload photos of themselves and browse the photos of others. Sites may offer additional services, such as webcasts, online chat, telephone chat (VOIP), and message boards. Some sites provide free registration, but may offer services which require a monthly fee. Other sites depend on advertising for their revenue.

      Many sites are broad based, with members coming from a variety of backgrounds looking for different types of relationships. Other sites are more specific, based on the type of members, interests, location, or relationship desired.

      Virtual dating combines online dating with online gaming. Virtual dating involves the use of avatars for people to interact in a virtual venue that resembles a real life dating environment. For example, individuals can meet and chat in a romantic virtual cafe in Paris or on a Caribbean resort. They can explore together, play games and take relationship quizzes to get a better, deeper understanding of each other. While online dating sites allows members to search on attributes such as education and income, virtual dating allows users to explore compatibility, sense of humor and rapport. Virtual dating sites include Weopia and Omnidate.

      According to Scientific American, virtual dating is "the next step in online dating". A Time Magazine article entitled "Internet Dating 2.0" was published on January 19, 2007 citing current and upcoming technologies and explains how people can now connect in a virtual dating environment. Time describes how websites are allowing people to meet for an avatar based, graphically enabled virtual date without leaving their homes.

      Researchers at MIT and Harvard have found that "people who had had a chance to interact with each other (by computer only) on a virtual tour of a museum subsequently had more successful face to face meetings than people who had viewed only profiles".

      These three dimensional experience has reported more registrations from women than men. One explanation for this phenomenon is that virtual dating allows women to have complete control over who they select and how they interact. Virtual dating also eliminates large amounts of emails in women's inboxes and allows women to enjoy a friendly dating option
  • Debt Consolidation/Management
      Debt consolidation entails taking out one loan to pay off many others. This is often done to secure a lower interest rate, secure a fixed interest rate or for the convenience of servicing only one loan.

      Debt consolidation can simply be from a number of unsecured loans into another unsecured loan, but more often it involves a secured loan against an asset that serves as collateral, most commonly a house. In this case, a mortgage is secured against the house. The collateralization of the loan allows a lower interest rate than without it, because by collateralizing, the asset owner agrees to allow the forced sale (foreclosure) of the asset to pay back the loan. The risk to the lender is reduced so the interest rate offered is lower.

      Sometimes, debt consolidation companies can discount the amount of the loan. When the debtor is in danger of bankruptcy, the debt consolidator will buy the loan at a discount. A prudent debtor can shop around for consolidators who will pass along some of the savings. Consolidation can affect the ability of the debtor to discharge debts in bankruptcy, so the decision to consolidate must be weighed carefully.

      Debt consolidation is often advisable in theory when someone is paying credit card debt. Credit cards can carry a much larger interest rate than even an unsecured loan from a bank. Debtors with property such as a home or car may get a lower rate through a secured loan using their property as collateral. Then the total interest and the total cash flow paid towards the debt is lower allowing the debt to be paid off sooner, incurring less interest.

      Other options available to overburdened debtors include credit counseling, debt settlement and personal bankruptcy. Some consolidation lenders will renegotiate with the creditors on the debtor's behalf, as a credit counselor does.
  • Domain Registration
      A domain name registry is a database of all domain names registered in a top-level domain. A registry operator, also called a network information center (NIC), is the part of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet that keeps the database of domain names, and generates the zone files which convert domain names to IP Addresses. Each NIC is an organization that manages the registration of Domain names within the top level domains for which it is responsible, controls the policies of domain name allocation, and technically operates its top-level domain. It is potentially distinct from a domain name registrar.

      Domain names are managed under a hierarchy headed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), which manages the top of the DNS tree by administrating the data in the root name servers. IANA also operates the.int registry for intergovernmental organizations, the .arpa zone for protocol administration purposes, and other critical zones such as root servers.net.

      IANA delegates all other domain name authority to other domain name registries such as VeriSign.

      Country code top level domains (ccTLD) are delegated by IANA to national registries such as DENIC in Germany and Nominet in the United Kingdom.
  • Drop Shipping
      Drop shipping is a supply chain management technique in which the retailer does not keep goods in stock, but instead transfers customer orders and shipment details to either the manufacturer or a wholesaler, who then ships the goods directly to the customer. As in all retail businesses, the retailers make their profit on the difference between the wholesale and retail price.

      Some drop shipping retailers may keep "show" items on display in stores, so that customers can inspect an item similar to those that they can purchase. Other retailers may provide only a catalogue or website.

      Retailers that drop ship merchandise from wholesalers may take measures to hide this fact to avoid any stigma, or to keep the wholesale source from becoming widely known. This can be achieved by "blind shipping" (shipping merchandise without a return address), or "private label shipping" (having merchandise shipped from the wholesaler with a return address customized to the retailer). A customized packing slip may also be included by the wholesaler, indicating the retailer's company name, logo, and contact information.

      Drop shipping can occur when a small retailer who typically sells in small quantities to the general public receives a single large order for a product. Rather than route the shipment through the retail store, the retailer may arrange for the goods to be shipped directly to the customer. Drop shipping is also very common with big ticket items like steel buildings where the retailer will take a deposit and have the building shipped direct to the buyer's building site from the supplier's manufacturing facility.

      Many sellers on online auction sites, such as eBay, also drop ship. Often, a seller will list an item as new and ship the item directly from the wholesaler to the highest bidder. The seller profits from the difference between the winning bid and the wholesale price, minus any selling and merchant fees from the auction site. A seller is permitted by eBay to list items that are currently not in his or her own possession, provided that he or she follows eBay's policy on pre-sale items.

      An emerging trend in the drop ship business is private brand drop shipping, in which a manufacturer produces a custom item for a retailer and drop ships it. The range of private label drop shipped items varies from simple key chains and t-shirts with custom logos or pictures to customized formulations for vitamins and nutritional supplements.

      Two significant benefits of drop shipping are the elimination of upfront inventory and a positive cash flow cycle. A positive cash flow cycle occurs because the seller is paid when the purchase is made. The seller usually pays the wholesaler using a credit card or credit terms. Therefore, there is a period of time in which the seller has the customer's money, but has not yet paid the wholesaler.

      Drop shipping also eliminates some duplication of effort, since only one warehouse will pick, pack and ship the product. This approach can reduce total inventory management and shipping costs. These cost reductions can subsequently reduce the price to the consumer

      The converse of drop shipping is will call, where a customer picks up directly from a wholesaler, rather than via a retail shop. Affiliate marketing can also be compared to drop shipping. As with drop shipping, affiliate marketing allows a website to list an item for sale that is not on hand but rather is shipped through a third party.
  • E-Commerce
      Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage. The use of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices and telephones as well.

      A large percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a website, but most electronic commerce involves the transportation of physical items in some way. Online retailers are sometimes known as e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as e-tail. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web.

      Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as business to business or B2B. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e.g. comodity exchange) or limited to specific, pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses and consumers, on the other hand, is referred to as business to consumer or B2C. This is the type of electronic commerce conducted by companies such as Amazon.com. Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce where the buyer is directly online to the seller's computer usually via the internet. There is no intermediary service. The sale and purchase transaction is completed electronically and interactively in real-time such as Amazon.com for new books. If an intermediary is present, then the sale and purchase transaction is called electronic commerce such as eBay.com.

      Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions.

      Business models across the world also continue to change drastically with the advent of eCommerce and this change is not just restricted to USA. Other countries are also contributing to the growth of eCommerce. For example, the United Kingdom has the biggest e-commerce market in the world when measured by the amount spent per capita, even higher than the USA. The internet economy in UK is likely to grow by 10% between 2010 to 2015. This has led to changing dynamics for the advertising industry.

      Amongst emerging economies, China's eCommerce presence continues to expand. With 384 million internet users,China's online shopping sales rose to $36.6 billion in 2009 and one of the reasons behind the huge growth has been the improved trust level for shoppers. The Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online.

      Business models across the world also continue to change drastically with the advent of eCommerce and this change is not just restricted to USA. Other countries are also contributing to the growth of eCommerce. For example, the United Kingdom has the biggest e-commerce market in the world when measured by the amount spent per capita, even higher than the USA. The internet economy in UK is likely to grow by 10% between 2010 to 2015. This has led to changing dynamics for the advertising industry.

      Amongst emerging economies, China's eCommerce presence continues to expand. With 384 million internet users, China's online shopping sales rose to $36.6 billion in 2009 and one of the reasons behind the huge growth has been the improved trust level for shoppers. The Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online.
  • Educational Software
      Educational software is computer software, the primary purpose of which is teaching or self learning.

      The use of computer hardware and software in education and training dates to the early 1940s, when American researchers developed flight simulators which used analog computers to generate simulated onboard instrument data. One such system was the type19 synthetic radar trainer, built in 1943. From these early attempts in the WWII era through the mid 1970s, educational software was directly tied to the hardware, usually mainframe computers, on which it ran. Pioneering educational computer systems in this era included the PLATO system (1960), developed at the University of Illinois, and TICCIT (1969). In 1963, IBM had established a partnership with Stanford University's Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences (IMSSS), directed by Patrick Suppes, to develop the first comprehensive CAI elementary school curriculum which was implemented on a large scale in schools in both California and Mississippi. In 1967 Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC, now Pearson Education Technologies) was formed to market to schools the materials developed through the IBM partnership. Early terminals that ran educational systems cost over $10,000, putting them out of reach of most institutions. Some programming languages from this period, particularly BASIC (1963), and LOGO (1967) can also be considered educational, as they were specifically targeted to students and novice computer users. The PLATOIV system, released in 1972, supported many features which later became standard in educational software running on home computers. Its features included bitmap graphics, primitive sound generation, and support for non keyboard input devices including the touch screen.

      Major developments in educational software in the early and mid 1990s were made possible by advances in computer hardware. Multimedia graphics and sound were increasingly used in educational programs. CD ROMs became the preferred method for content delivery. With the spread of the internet in the second half of the 1990s, new methods of educational software delivery appeared. In the history of virtual learning environments, the 1990s were a time of growth for educational software systems, primarily due to the advent of the affordable computer and of the Internet. Today Higher Education institutions use virtual learning environments like Blackboard Inc. to provide greater accessibility to learners.
  • Home Appliance
      Home appliances are electrical or mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning. Home appliances can be classified into Major Appliances and Small Appliances.

      This division is also noticeable in the service area of these kinds of products. Brown goods usually require high technical knowledge and skills (which get more complex with time, such as going from a soldering iron to a hot-air soldering station), while white goods need more practical skills and "brute force" to manipulate the devices and heavy tools required to repair them

      White goods or major appliances comprise major household appliances and may include air conditioner, dishwasher, clothes dryer, drying cabinet, freezer, refrigerator, kitchen stove, water heater, washing machine, trash compacter, microwave ovens and induction cookers.

      Brown goods/small appliances are typically small household electrical entertainment appliances such as Compact Disc (CD) and DVD players, camcorders, still cameras, clocks, alarm clocks, video game consoles, HiFi and home cinema, telephones and answering machines.

      Some types of brown goods were traditionally finished with or looked like wood or bakelite. This is now rather rare, but the name has stuck, even for goods that are unlikely ever to have been provided in a wooden case. White goods were typically painted or enamelled white, and many of them still are. The addition of new items to these categories shows that the categories still serve a purpose in marketing.

      There is usually a problem with microwave ovens, because these sell alongside refrigerators and dishwashers, but microwave ovens contain complex electronic boards (the clock and controller) which white good servicemen refuse to repair (as they don't have the training or tools required to do so). Some brands send whole boards for replacement, and some have them repaired by such technicians.
  • Fashion
      Fashion, a general term for a currently popular style or practice, especially in clothing, foot wear or accessories. Fashion references to anything that is the current trend in look and dress up of a person. The more technical term, costume, has become so linked in the public eye with the term "fashion" that the more general term "costume" has in popular use mostly been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while the term "fashion" means clothing generally, and the study of it. For a broad cross cultural look at clothing and its place in society, refer to the entries for clothing, costume and fabrics.
  • Fashion Accessory
      Fashion accessories are decorative items that supplement and complement clothes, such as jewelry, gloves, handbags, hats, belts, scarves, watches, sunglasses, pins, stockings, bow ties, leg warmers, leggings, neckties, suspenders, and tights.

      Accessories can add color, style and class to an outfit, and create a certain look, but they can also have practical handbags with functions that can be used to carry small items such as cash, hats to protect the face in bad weather, and gloves to keep hands warm.

      Many accessories are produced by clothing design companies. However, there has been an increase in individuals creating their own brand name by designing and making their own label of accessories. Following the internet boom, individuals have been able to sell their own accessories online to anyone across the globe. Handmade unique accessories are in high demand today.

      Accessories can be visual symbols of religious affiliation like crucifixes, Jewish stars, Islamic headscarves, skullcaps and turbans are common examples. Designer labels on accessories are perceived by some as an indicator of social status.

      Over the centuries fashion accessories have changed and evolved. In 19th century English fashion accessories included items such as The Muff, The Tippet, and Tulle shawls. During this time hats and turbans were also considered fashionable.

      The beginning of the 20th century saw radical changes in the way women began to dress. Dress became more practical and meant that accessories didn’t play such a big part in fashion during this time.

      In the 1950s fashion accessories become more popular in the western world, with accessories such as fruit corsages to adorn sweaters or hats. Also in the 1950s eyewear began to be used as fashion accessories. The 1950s also saw the rise of the stiletto.
  • Financial Advisory Services
      A financial adviser or financial advisor is a professional who renders financial services to individuals, businesses and governments. This can involve investment advice, which may include pension planning, and advice on life insurance and other insurances such as income protection insurance, critical illness insurance etc., and advice on mortgages.

      Ideally, the financial adviser helps the client maintain the desired balance of investment income, capital gains, and acceptable level of risk by using proper asset allocation. Financial advisers use stock, bonds, mutual funds, real estate investment trusts (REIT), options, futures, notes, and insurance products to meet the needs of their clients. Many financial advisers receive a commission payment for the various financial products that they broker, although "fee based" planning is becoming increasingly popular in the financial services industry.

      A further distinction should be made between "fee based" and "fee only" advisers. Fee based advisers often charge asset based fees but may also collect commissions. Fee only advisers do not collect commissions or referral fees paid by other product or service providers.

      Some investment advisors only charge a fee based on the assets managed for the client. Typically they charge about 1.0 to 1.5% per year to make the investment decisions for the client. They do not collect commissions.

      Financial Adviser is also the name of a weekly trade newspaper for independent financial advisers in the UK. Owned by The Financial Times, its editorial offices are in London.

      Many financial advisers receive a commission payment for the various financial products that they broker, although "fee based" planning is becoming increasingly popular in the financial services industry.
  • Health Fitness
      Physical fitness comprises two related concepts, general fitness as state of health and well being and specific fitness as task oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or fitness exercise. Physical fitness is generally achieved through exercise, correct nutrition and enough rest. It is an important part of a person’s life.

      In previous years, fitness was commonly defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, as automation increased leisure time, changes in lifestyles following the industrial revolution rendered this definition insufficient. These days, physical fitness is considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.

      Fitness equipment used is an apparatus or device used in any given physical activity for shaping and forming muscle groups for specific areas of the body. A mechanism or machine that is intended to promote health and fitness by using motion with varying degrees of resistance either fixed or adjustable.
  • Florist
      Floristry is the general term used to describe the professional floral trade. It encompasses flower care and handling, floral design or flower arranging, merchandising, and display and flower delivery. Wholesale florists sell bulk flowers and related supplies to professionals in the trade. Retail florists offer fresh flowers and related products and services to consumers.

      Floristry is a term can refer to the cultivation of flowers as well as their arrangement, and to the business of selling them. Much of the raw material supplied for the floristry trade comes from the cut flower industry. Florist shops, along with online stores are the main flower only outlets, but supermarkets, garden supply stores and filling stations also sell flowers.

      Floral design or floral arts is the art of creating flower arrangements in vases, bowls, baskets or other containers, or making bouquets and compositions from cut flowers, foliages, herbs, ornamental grasses and other plant materials. Often the terms "floral design" and "floristry" are considered synonymous. Florists are people who work with flowers and plants, generally at the retail level. The term is not to be confused with floristics. Floristry is also not to be confused with horticulture which more broadly relates to the cultivation of flowers and plants so they will remain fresh as long as possible, and would be desirable for purchase, which also involves knowledge of customers' requirements and expectations. Ability to create a variety of floral designs such as wreaths, bouquets, corsages, 'buttonholes', permanent arrangements and other more complicated arrangements is also important.

      The flowers sold in florist shops typically represent the varieties abundantly available in the season but also include blossoms flown in from around the world. Basic varieties in temperate latitudes include roses, tulips, irises, orchids and lilies. Fashion sometimes plays a role in floristry; what is considered the flower that everyone needs to have today can change very quickly.

      Some shops also stock gift baskets, fruits, and chocolates as well as flowers, whereas some shops will purchase these things only when needed for an order. Floral business is seasonal and is heavily influenced by the following holiday events for Christmas, Valentine’s Day, Administrative Professionals Day, Mothers Day, All Souls Day, Advent, Easter, Weddings and Funerals. These occasions make up the largest part of the business, with the sale of house plants and home decor being a smaller, but more constant, part. Flowers for personal enjoyment as well as those selected to celebrate birthdays, anniversaries, thank you's and get well wishes are also a significant portion of a florist's business.

      Education, both formal and informal, is another significant segment of the floristry industry. Established floristry designers and artists impart their craft to students interested in floral design as hobby or career. Courses are generally available in through community colleges, via private post secondary vocational schools and through professional florist trade associations.

      The floristry business has a significant market in the corporate and social event world as flowers play a large part in the decor of special events and meetings. Centerpieces, entryways, reception tables, bridal bouquets, wedding chuppahs and stage sets and only a few examples of how flowers are used in the business and social event settings.
  • Furniture
      Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping in beds, to hold objects at a convenient height for work using horizontal surfaces above the ground, or to store things. Storage furniture such as a nightstand often makes use of doors, drawers, shelves and locks to contain and organize or secure smaller objects such as clothes, tools, books, and household goods.

      Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. Domestic furniture works to create, in conjunction with furnishings such as clocks and lighting, comfortable and convenient interior spaces. Furniture can be made from many materials, including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture.
  • Gifts
      A gift or a present is the transfer of something without the expectation of receiving something in return. Although gift-giving might involve an expectation of reciprocity, a gift is meant to be free. In many human societies, the act of mutually exchanging money, goods, etc. may contribute to social cohesion. Economists have elaborated the economics of gift giving into the notion of a gift economy. By extension the term gift can refer to anything that makes the other happier or less sad, especially as a favor, including forgiveness and kindness.

      When material objects are given as gifts, in many cultures they are traditionally packaged in some manner. For example, in Western culture, gifts are often wrapped in wrapping paper and accompanied by a gift note which may note the occasion, the recipient's name, and the giver's name. In Chinese culture, red wrapping connotes luck.
  • Sports Equipment
      Sports equipment serves to increase your strength, endurance and functionality. This doesn't include all the other under lying health benefits that come with exercise utilization. Exercise equipment can be divided into three main categories which are resistance , aerobic and functional. All three equipment types give you a distinct caliber of conditioning. Exercise equipment is identified as any device that is used for physical activity. Physical exercise can be defined through a few distinct avenues. Each of these activity models has specific equipment to go with it. Resistance equipment helps you build a stronger musculoskeletal system.

      There are two main resistance accessories, free weights and machines. Aerobic equipment intends to enhance your oxygen system. Aerobic or cardio equipment are either seated or standing in nature. Functional devices involve training the body for activities in daily life. Physio balls, medicine balls, a bosu balance trainer and dyna discs all work to better your muscular balance and joint stability. Examples of sports equipment are baseball, badminton, boxing, cricket, croquet, golf, gymnastic apparatus, ice hockey, skiing, snowboarding and more.
  • Grocery Store
      A grocery store is a store established primarily for the retailing of food. A grocer the owner of a grocery store, stocks different kinds of foods from assorted places and cultures, and sells them to customers. Large grocery stores that stock products other than food, such as clothing or household items, are called supermarkets. Small grocery stores that mainly sell fruits and vegetables are known as produce markets (U.S) or greengrocers (Britain), and small grocery stores that predominantly sell snack foods and sandwiches are known as convenience store or delicatessens.

      Online Grocer refers to a grocery store that allows private individuals and businesses to purchase groceries and grocery products online. There is usually a delivery charge for this service. Online grocery delivery services are available throughout the UK, Asia and North America, mostly in urban centres.

      The first method of delivery involves shipping groceries using courier services. If the order contains cold or frozen items, the grocer will use the method of "Flash Freezing" the goods and pack them into special shipping containers. These online grocers usually offer a large or national delivery area.

      The second method of grocery delivery is a personal delivery. Most local online grocers have their own drivers and are able to deliver goods faster than the first method. The most common type of personal delivery involves storing grocery inventory in a warehouse to deliver to customers once orders are placed. Another type of personal delivery which is less common is based on just in time business in which there is no warehouse or inventory. In this type of delivery, customers place orders for next day delivery. The online grocer shops for the groceries on the morning of the delivery day.
  • Home Improvement (Hardware)
      Hardware stores, sometimes known as DIY stores, sell household hardware including fasteners, hand tools, power tools, keys, locks, hinges, chains, plumbing supplies, electrical supplies, cleaning products, housewares, tools, utensils, paint, and lawn and garden products directly to consumers for use at home or for business. Many hardware stores have specialty departments unique to its region or its owner's interests. These departments include hunting and fishing supplies, plants and nursery products, marine and boating supplies, pet food and supplies, farm and ranch supplies including animal feed, swimming pool chemicals, home brewing supplies and canning supplies.

      Part of the popularity of Hardware Stores is the range of services that a hardware store provides. Most retail outlets only sell goods, while a hardware store custom makes or repairs a large variety of household items. It is common for a hardware store in the U.S. to repair broken windows and screens, repair power equipment such as lawn mowers, re-key entry locks, make copies of house keys and car keys, re-wire lamps and vacuum cleaners, sharpen knives and cutting tools, make minor repairs to faucet and shower parts, repair kerosene heaters and cut and thread plumbing pipe to sketch.
  • Herbal Medicine/Products
      Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Herbalism is also known as botanical medicine, medical herbalism, herbal medicine, herbology, and phytotherapy. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain animal parts. Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources.

      Traditional use of medicines is recognized as a way to learn about potential future medicines. In 2001, researchers identified 122 compounds used in mainstream medicine which were derived from "ethnomedical" plant sources; 80% of these compounds were used in the same or related manner as the traditional ethnomedical use.

      Plants have evolved the ability to synthesize chemical compounds that help them defend against attack from a wide variety of predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. By chance some of these compounds whilst being toxic to plant predators turn out to have beneficial effects when used to treat human diseases. Such secondary metabolites are highly varied in structure, many are aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen substituted derivatives. At least 12,000 have been isolated so far a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total. Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body by binding to receptor molecules present in the body; such processes are identical to those already well understood for conventional drugs and as such herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. This enables herbal medicines to be in principle just as effective as conventional medicines but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds.

      Similarly to prescription drugs, a number of herbs are thought to be likely to cause adverse effects. Furthermore, "adulteration, inappropriate formulation, or lack of understanding of plant and drug interactions have led to adverse reactions that are sometimes life threatening or lethal
  • Home Security
      Physical security describes measures that are designed to deny access to unauthorized personnel including attackers from physically accessing a building, facility, resource, or stored information; and guidance on how to design structures to resist potentially hostile acts. Physical security can be as simple as a locked door or as elaborate as multiple layers of barriers, armed security guards and guardhouse placement. Good physical security uses the concept of layered defense, in appropriate combinations to deter and delay intrusions (passive defense), and detect and respond to intrusions to your home security.. Ultimately it should be too difficult, risky or costly to an attacker to even attempt an intrusion. However, strong security measures also come at a cost, and there can be no perfect security. It is up to a security designer to balance security features and a tolerable amount of personnel access against available resources, risks to assets to be protected. There is also life cycle sustaining costs to consider.

      Physical security is not a modern phenomenon. Physical security exists in order to deter persons from entering a physical facility. Historical examples of physical security include city walls, moats, etc.

      The key factor is the technology used for physical security has changed over time. While in past eras, there was no passive infrared (PIR) based technology, electronic access control systems, or video surveillance system (VSS) cameras, the essential methodology of physical security has not altered over time. Locks are digitally controlled and audited in modern facilities.
  • Home Theater
      Home cinema, also commonly called home theater, are home entertainment set-ups that seek to reproduce a movie theater experience and mood with the help of video and audio equipment in a private home.

      In the 1950s, playing home movies became popular in the United States as Kodak 8mm film projector equipment become affordable. The development of multi channel audio systems and later LaserDisc in the 1980s created a new paradigm for home cinema. In the early to mid 1990s, a typical home cinema in the United States would have a LaserDisc or VHS player fed to a large rear-projection television set. Some people were using expensive front projectors in a darkened viewing room. Beginning In the late 1990s,and continuing through out much of the 2000s home theater technology progressed with the development of the DVD Video format, Dolby Digital 5.1 channel audio with surround sound speaker systems, and high definition television. In the 2010s 3D television technology and Blu-ray Disc have ushered in a new era of home theater once again.

      In the 2000s, the term "home cinema" encompasses a range of systems meant for movie playback at home. Home theater designs and layouts are personal choices and the only known minimum set of requirements for a home theater are television set, Video projector CRT, LCD, DLP , Plasma Display, organic light emitting diode (OLED), SXRD, Laser TV, rear projection TV, stereo sound but preferably 5.1 Channel Dolby Digital and DTS audio and something that plays or broadcast movies in at least stereo sound such as a VHS HI-FI VCR, DVD player and a Blu-ray Player, cable or satellite receiver, video game console, etc. The most expensive home theater can cost over $100,000, have expensive digital projectors and projection screens, and maybe even a custom built screening rooms which include cinema style chairs and audiophile grade sound equipment designed to mimic) commercial theater performance.
  • Hotel Reservation
      Online hotel reservations are becoming a very popular method for booking hotel rooms. Travelers can book rooms from home by using online security to protect their privacy and financial information and by using several online travel agents to compare prices and facilities at different hotels.

      Prior to the Internet, travelers could write, telephone the hotel directly, or use a travel agent to make a reservation. Nowadays, online travel agents have pictures of hotels and rooms, information on prices and deals, and even information on local resorts. Many also allow reviews of the traveler to be recorded with the online travel agent.

      Online hotel reservations are also helpful for making last minute travel arrangements. Hotels may drop the price of a room if some rooms are still available. There are several websites that specialize in searches for deals on rooms.

      Several large online travel sites are, in effect, travel agencies. These sites send the hotels' information and rates downstream to literally thousands of online travel sites, most of which act as travel agents. They can then receive commission payments from the hotels for any business booked on their websites.

      Lastly, people can book directly on an individual hotel's website. An increasing number of hotels are building their own websites to allow them to market their hotels directly to consumers. Non franchise chain hotels require a "booking engine" application to be attached to their website to permit people to book rooms in real time. One advantage of booking with the hotel directly is the use of the hotel's full cancellation policy as well as not needing a deposit in most situations.

      To improve the likelihood of filling rooms, hotels tend to use several of the above systems. The content on many hotel reservation systems is becoming increasingly similar as more hotels sign up to all the sites. Companies thus have to either rely on specially negotiated rates with the hotels and hotel chains or trust in the influence of search engine rankings to draw in customers.

      The ultimate service provided by these companies to the hotels and the online consumer is that they provide a single database from which all reservation sources draw immediate room availability and rates. It is very important that hotels integrate with all the supply channels so that their guests are able to make accurate online bookings.There are many ways of making the online reservation,most of the online reservation systems use the centralized GDS system for making the reservation with the hotel directly.Examples of the GDS are Sabre, WorldSpan, Travelport,

      The online hotel reservation through GDS is just the tentative reservation, means that you do not need to pay at the time of reservation, instead pay at the time of check in or check out.
  • Jewelry
      Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, manifesting itself as necklaces, rings, brooches, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be made from any material, usually gemstones, precious metals or shells. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Jewellery may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing. Items such as belts and handbags are considered to be accessories rather than jewellery.

      Jewellery is sometimes regarded as a way of showing wealth and might also possess some minimal functionality, such as holding a garment together or keeping hair in place. It has from very early times been regarded as a form of personal adornment. Some jewellery throughout the ages may have specifically been as an indication of a social group. More exotic jewellery is often for wealthier people, with its rarity increasing its value. Due to its personal nature and its indication of social class, some cultures established traditions of burying the dead with their jewellery.

      Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewellery. While traditional jewellery is usually made with gemstones and precious metals, such as silver or gold, there is also a growing demand for art jewellery where design and creativity is prized above material value. In addition, there is the less costly costume jewellery, made from lower value materials and often mass produced. Other variations include wire sculpture jewellery, using anything from base metal wire with rock tumbled stone to precious metals and precious gemstones.
  • Magazine Subscriptions
      Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles. They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three.

      Magazines can be distributed through the mail through sales by newsstands, bookstores or other vendors; or through free distribution at selected pick up locations. Sales models for distribution fall into three main categories.

      For paid circulation, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Examples from the UK include Private Eye and PC Pro

      For free circulation, there is no cover price and magazine issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline in-flight magazines or included with other products or publications. An example from the UK and Australasia is TNT Magazine.

      For controlled circulation, this model is used by "insider magazines" or industry based publications distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free and determined by some form of survey. This latter model was widely used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer industry magazines, including Computer Weekly and Computing and in finance, Waters Magazine.

      An online magazine shares some features with a blog and also with online newspapers, but can usually be distinguished by its approach to editorial control. Magazines typically have editors or editorial boards who review submissions and perform a quality control function to ensure that all material meets the expectations of the publishers those investing time or money in its production and generate the readership.

      Online magazines that are part of the World Wide Web, that is, all or part of a website, are sometimes called webzines. An ezine or e-zine is a more specialized term appropriately applied to small magazines and newsletters distributed by any electronic method, for example, by electronic mail (e-mail/email). Some social groups may use the terms cyberzine and hyperzine when referring to electronically distributed resources. Similarly, some online magazines may refer to themselves as "electronic magazines" to reflect their readership demographics or to capture alternative terms and spellings in online searches.

      Many large print publishers now provide digital reproduction of their print magazine titles through various online services for a fee. These service providers also refer to their collections of these digital format products as online magazines, and sometimes as digital magazines. Online magazines representing matters of interest to specialists in or societies for academic subjects, science, trade or industry are typically referred to as online journals.
  • Music Media Download
      A music download is the transferral of a song from an Internet facing computer or website to a user's local computer. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyright material without permission or payment.

      Popular examples of online music stores that sell digital singles and albums include the iTunes Store, Napster, Zune Marketplace, Amazon MP3, Nokia Music Store, TuneTribe, Kazaa and eMusic. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Managament that restricts making extra copies of the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players. They are almost always compressed using a lossy codec usually MPEG-1 Layer 3 or Windows Media reducing file size and therefore bandwidth requirements. However, this may cause an apparent loss in quality to a listener when compared to a CD, and cause compatibility issues with certain software and devices. Uncompressed files and loss lessly compressed files are available at some sites.

      As of 2006, digital music sales are estimated to have reached a trade value of approximately US$2 billion, with tracks available through 500 online services located in 40 countries, representing around 10 percent of the total global music market. Around the world in 2006, an estimated five billion songs, equating to 38,000 years in music, were swapped on peer-to-peer websites, while 509 million were purchased online. As of January 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone saw $1.1 billion of revenue in fiscal Q1.
  • Mobile Download (Games/Applications)
      A mobile phone also called mobile, cellular telephone, cell phone, or hand phone is an electronic device used to make mobile telephone calls across a wide geographic area. Mobile phones are different from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within a limited range of a fixed land line, for example within a home or an office.

      A mobile phone can make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed line phones across the world. It does this by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile network operator.

      In addition to functioning as a telephone, a modern mobile phone typically supports additional services such as SMS or text messaging, MMS, e-mail and Internet access with short-range wireless Bluetooth and Infrared communications, as well as business and gaming applications, and photography. Mobile phones that offer advanced computing abilities are referred to as Smartphones.

      The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person to person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.

      Other non SMS data services used on mobile phones include mobile music, downloadable logos and pictures, gaming, gambling, adult entertainment and advertising. The first downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, when Radiolinja (Elisa) introduced the downloadable ringtone service. In 1999, Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile Internet service, i-Mode, which today is the world's largest mobile Internet service. Mobile payments were first trialed in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. Today, mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and Africa, and in selected European markets.
  • Office Supplies
      Office supplies is the generic term that refers to all supplies regularly used in offices by businesses and other organizations, from private citizens to governments, who work with the collection, refinement, and output of information colloquially referred to as "paper work".

      The term includes small, expendable, daily use items such as paper clips, post-it notes, staples, hole punches, binders and laminators, writing utensils, paper but also encompasses higher cost equipment like computers, printers, fax machines, photocopiers and cash registers, as well as office furniture such as cubicles, filing cabinet, and armoire desks. Two very common medium to high cost office equipment items before the advent of suitably priced word processing machines and PCs in the 1970s and 1980s were typewriters and adding machines.

      Many businesses in the office supply industry have recently expanded into related markets for businesses like copy centers, which facilitate the creation and printing of business collateral such as business cards and stationaery, plus printing and binding of high quality, high volume business and engineering documents. Some businesses also provide services for shipping, including packaging and bulk mailing.
  • Offshore Services
      An offshore financial centre (OFC), though not precisely defined, is usually a small, low tax jurisdiction specialising in providing corporate and commercial services to non resident offshore companies, and for the investment of offshore funds.

      It has been remarked more than once that whether a financial centre is characterized as "offshore" is really a question of degree. Indeed, the IMF Working Paper cited above notes that its definition of an offshore centre would include the United Kingdom and the United States, which are ordinarily counted as "onshore" because of their large populations and inclusion in international organisations such as the G20 and OECD.

      The more nebulous term “Tax Haven” is often applied to offshore centres, leading to confusion between the two concepts. In Tolley's International Initiatives Affecting Financial Havens the author in the Glossary of Terms defines an “offshore financial centre” in forthright terms as “a politically correct term for what used to be called a tax haven.” However, he then qualifies this by adding, “The use of this term makes the important point that a jurisdiction may provide specific facilities for offshore financial centres without being in any general sense a tax haven." A 1981 report by the IRS concludes, “a country is a tax haven if it looks like one and if it is considered to be one by those who care.”

      With its connotations of financial secrecy and tax avoidance, “Tax Haven” is not always an appropriate term for offshore financial centres, many of which have no statutory banking secrecy, and most of which have adopted tax information exchange protocols to allow foreign countries to investigate suspected tax evasion.

      The term offshore company is ambiguous. It may refer to either:
      1. A company which is incorporated outside the jurisdiction of its primary operations regardless of whether that jurisdiction is an offshore financial centre (sometimes known as a non resident company) i.e. a Canadian company may be 'offshore' for the purposes of a USA citizen
      2. Any company (resident or otherwise) incorporated in an offshore financial centre at offshore jurisdictions

      Views of offshore financial centres tend to be polarised. Proponents suggest that reputable offshore financial centres play a legitimate and integral role in international finance and trade, and that their zero tax structure allows financial planning and risk management and makes possible some of the cross-border vehicles necessary for global trade, including financing for aircraft and shipping or reinsurance of medical facilities. Proponents point to the tacit support of offshore centres by the governments of the United States (which promotes offshore financial centres by the continuing use of the FSC and United Kingdom which actively promotes offshore finance in Caribbean dependent territories to help them diversify

      It is worth mentioning at this juncture that taxation of a company somewhere other than its place of incorporation is not by any means an exclusively offshore concept. By way of example consider a UK incorporated company which traded exclusively in France. If the board of directors of this company were based in France there would be no doubt that the company would be subject to French tax.Consider also a US citizen running a Bahamas company from the US, there is no doubt that the activities of that company are subject to taxation in the US.
  • Online PC Support
      A personal computer (PC) is any general purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user with no intervening computer operator. PCs include any type of computer that is used in a "personal" manner. This is in contrast to the batch processing or time sharing models which allowed large expensive mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time, or large data processing systems which required a full time staff to operate efficiently. A personal computer may be a desktop computer or other mobile types, for example a laptop, tablet PC or a handheld PC that is smaller than a laptop.

      Application Support or Technical support or tech support is a range of services providing assistance with technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other electronic or mechanical goods. In general, technical support services attempt to help the user solve specific problems with a product rather than providing training, customization, or other support services. Most companies offer technical support for the products they sell, either freely available or for a fee. Technical support may be delivered over the telephone or online by e-mail or a web site or a tool where users can log a call or incident. Larger organizations frequently have internal technical support available to their staff for computer related problems. The internet is also a good source for freely available tech support, where experienced users may provide advice and assistance with problems. In addition, some fee-based service companies charge for premium technical support services.

      Remote PC repair or Remote Computer Repair is a method for troubleshooting software related problems via remote desktop connections. Technicians use software that allows the technician to access the user's desktop via the Internet. With the user's permission, the technician can take control of the user's mouse and keyboard, transfer various diagnostic and repair applications to the user's desktop, run scans, install antivirus programs, etc. If the remote service permits it, the technician can even reboot the PC and reconnect remotely to continue his work without the user needing to assist. Common repairs available with online computer support providers are computer virus and spyware removal, computer optimization, registry repair, device driver issues, web related issues, and Windows security updates.Generally, only software can be "repaired" remotely. A computer with a broken hardware component such as a motherboard or hard disk can in some cases be diagnosed, but must be repaired in person
  • Prepaid Cards
      Prepaid telephone calls are a popular way of making telephone calls which allow the caller to control spend and not be tied into ongoing commitments with the telephone operator.

      Prepaid phone cards is a service provided by various telecom companies that sell their service in advance. When you purchase a prepaid phone card, you are paying for long distance connection time in advance. When you make calls using the phone card, the card's value is deducted based on connection fee, duration of connection, surcharges and any maintenance charges associated with the phone card.

      Prepaid telephone calls are usually implemented in a telephone operators network using the intelligent network functionality. The competitive prices these operators offer are usually made possible by least cost routing and lower overheads than the larger telephone operators. Telephone prepaid calling cards are commonly known as Phone Cards in the US and the UK, are available from nearly every newsstand and any store. They are often the cheapest means of making long distance or even international telephone calls to family, friends and offer complete anonymity. Phone cards sold by retailers are activated when purchased by consumers.

      Web sites offer prepaid PINs for calling; thus there is no physical phone card. Prepaid online calling cards are more convenient to use, because most of the companies provide the option of registering the phone and avoiding using PINs at all. Rates vary from provider to provider, but the customer should be aware that cards with cheaper rates usually have hidden maintenance and/or connection fees. Prepaid calling operators offer services to customers who hold accounts with them and have paid money in advance. The service is typically accessed by the user dialling a toll free number from any PSTN telephone, call box, mobile phone, etc. The user then authenticates himself with the operator by entering a PIN, types in the digits of the number to connect to, and then is connected by the operator. Often these operators have toll free numbers all over the world, so a customer can access the service even when he is abroad.
  • Religious Products / Services
      The economics of religion, especially in sociology, religious economy applies socio-economic theory and methods to explain the religious behavioral patterns of individuals, groups or cultures and the social consequences of such behavior. An example of the first is Adam Smith's analysis of the effect of competition and government regulation (or support) for religious denominations on the quantity and quality of religious services. An example of the second is Max Weber’ss thesis that the protestand ethic promoted the rise of capitalism.

      The field applies rational choice theory to the theory of religion such that supply and demand are used to model the development and success of organized religions. Major proponents of the theory include William Sims Brainbridge, Roger Finkle, Laurence Iannaccone, Rodney Stark and R. Stephen Warner.

      Religious economy may also refer to religious persons and organizations interacting within a market framework of competing groups and ideologies. An economy makes it possible for religious suppliers to meet the demands of different religious consumers. By offering an array of religions and religious products, a competitive religious economy stimulates such activity in a market type setting.

      Religious or theological economics is a related subject sometimes overlapping or conflated with the economics of religion. It uses religious principles to evaluate economic perspectives or vice versa. Another smaller literature considers such practical economic concerns as church growth and efficient resource use.

      The theory of religious economy arises from the application of fundamental principles of economics to the analysis of religious organizations. Just as commercial economies consist of a market in which different firms compete, religious economies consist of a market (the aggregate demand for religion) and firms (different religious organizations) seeking to attract and hold clients. The theory of religious economy was developed to explain why and how religions change
  • Shopping Mall
      A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area a modern, indoor version of the traditional marketplace.

      Modern "car friendly" strip malls developed from the 1920s, and shopping malls corresponded with the rise of suburban living in many parts of the Western World, especially the United States, after World War II. From early on, the design tended to be inward facing, with malls following theories of how customers could best be enticed in a controlled environment. Similar, the concept of a mall having one or more "anchor" or "big box" stores was pioneered early, with individual stores or smaller scale chain stores intended to benefit from the shoppers attracted by the big stores.

      Online shopping malls are websites that have a directory of online shopping stores. Stores may include Best Buy, Aeropostale, Home Depot, Sears, Expedia, Zales, Old Navy and many more online shopping stores.

      Most online shopping malls offer a loyalty program in the form of cash back rebate reward points or price comparison shopping. These online shopping malls include FatWallet, Shopping.com, Shopzilla, PriceGrabber and many more.

      But the biggest retail trend for online shopping malls is that consumers are taking to online shopping more and more every year according to research firm ComScore Networks. By online shopping malls offering easy access to online stores with online shopping directories, price comparison shopping and cash back rebates, this trend will continue to grow in the future.

      Collections of many traders with different offers directly on the same website are also sometimes known as online shopping mall or virtual shopping mall
  • Skincare
      The skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has multiple layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals, except that it is not protected by a pelt. Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it appears hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin. The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" from the Latin word.

      Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays a key role in protectingthe body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

      In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily.

      Skin has mesodermal cells, pigmentation or melanin provided by melanocytes, which absorb some of the potentially dangerous ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight. It also contains DNA repair enymes that help reverse UV damage, and people who lack the genes for these enzymes suffer high rates of skin cancer. One form predominantly produced by UV light, malignant, melanoma, is particularly invasive, causing it to spread quickly, and can often be deadly. Human skin pigmentation varies among populations in a striking manner. This has led to the classification of people on the basis of skin color.

      The skin is the largest organ in the human body. For the average adult human, the skin has a surface area of between 1.5-2.0 square metres (16.1-21.5 sq ft.), most of it is between 2–3 mm (0.10 inch) thick. The average square inch (6.5 cm²) of skin holds 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes, and more than 1,000 nerve endings.

  • Software
      Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do and how to do it. We can also say software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware meaning physical devices. In contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records.
  • Toys
      A toy is any object that can be used for play. Toys are usually associated with children and pets. Playing with toys is training the young for their social role. Many items are designed to serve as toys, but goods produced for other purposes can also be used. For instance, a small child may pick up a household item and "fly" it through the air as to pretend that it is an airplane. Another consideration is interactive digital entertainment, such as a video game. Some toys are produced primarily as collector's items and are intended for display only.

      The origin of toys is prehistoric origin from dolls representing infants, animals, and soldiers, as well as representations of tools used by adults are readily found at archaeological sites. The origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century.

      Toys, and play in general, are important when it comes to growing up and learning about the world around us. The young use toys and play to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, and practice skills they will need as adults. Adults use toys and play to form and strengthen social bonds, teach, remember and reinforce lessons from their youth, discover their identity, exercise their minds and bodies, explore relationships, practice skills, and decorate their living spaces.
  • Travel Industry
      A travel agency is a retail business that sells travel related products and services to customers on behalf of suppliers such as airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, sightseeing tours and package holidays that combine several products. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers and some travel agencies specialize in commercial and business travel only. There are also travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies, allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located.

      Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than 24 hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited."

      Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Spain, Malaysia and Thailand and many island nations such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.
  • Web Design
      Web design is a broad term used to encompass the way that content usually hypertext or hypermedia is delivered to an end user through the World Wide Web, using a web browser or other web enabled software to display the content. The intent of web design is to create a website a collection of online content including documents and applications that reside on a web hosting server. A website may include text, images, sounds and other content, and may be interactive.

      Web design involves the structure of the website including the information architecture, navigation schemes and naming conventions. The layout or the page page schematics are created to show consistent placement of items including functional features and the conceptual design with branding.

      Such elements as text, forms, images (GIF, JPEG, PNG) and video can be placed on the page using HTML, XHMTL, XML tags. Some browsers may require plug-ins such as Adobe Flash, QuickTime, Java run time environment, etc. to display some media, which are embedded into web page by using HTML or XHTML tags.

      Improvements in browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML or XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects.

      Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic. Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a web master or programmer manually updates the page. A simple HTML page is an example of static content. Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on end user’s input amd interaction or changes in the computing environment like user, time, database modifications, etc. Content can be changed on the client side by using client side scripting languages such as JavaScript, JScript, Actionscript to alter DOM elements (DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server side scripting languages like Perl, PHP, ASP, JSP, ColdFusuion, etc. Both approaches are usually used in complex applications.

      With growing specialization in the information technology field there is a strong tendency to distinguish between web design and web development.   Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for the development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high end consumer features and aesthetic qualities.

      This definition separates web design from web programming, emphasizing the functional features of a web site, as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design. The process of designing web pages, web sites, web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines, such as animation, authoring, communication design, corporate identity, graphic design, human computer interaction, information architecture, interaction design, marketing, photography, search engine optimization and typography.
  • Website Promotion
      Website promotion is the continuing process to promote a website to bring more visitors to the website. Many techniques such as web content development, search engine optimization (SEO), and search engine submission, are used to increase the traffic to a site.

      SEO is an acronym for "search engine optimization" or "search engine optimizer." Deciding to hire an SEO is a big decision that can potentially improve your site and save time, but you can also risk damage to your site and reputation. Make sure to research the potential advantages as well as the damage that an irresponsible SEO can do to your site. Many SEOs and other agencies and consultants provide useful services for website owners, including review of your site content or structure, technical advice on website development: for example, hosting, redirects, error pages, use of JavaScript, content development, management of online business development campaigns, keyword research, SEO training and expertise in specific markets and geographies.

      Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. In general, the earlier (or higher on the page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, news search and industry specific vertical search engines. This gives a website web presence.

      As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.

      The initialism "SEO" can refer to "search engine optimizers," a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients, and by employees who perform SEO services in house. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content, SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs, menus, content management systems, images, videos, shopping carts, and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure.

      Another class of techniques, known as black hat SEO or spamdexing, uses methods such as link farms, keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user experience with search engines. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices.

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